In May 2009, I drastically revised this website, and promised that it would be active. Then I was bit by a tick and developed Lyme disease, which kept me from attending to the site. Several months ago, after extensive antibiotic treatment, I was able to return to this task, and I radically revised the website again. Since my experience with Lyme disease may be valuable to some readers, it is discussed in Part 4 of the website. The following introduces the new website. The left bar takes you to the full site. Adrian Bjornson, December 2012
Scientific Foundation of the Website
Our Milky-Way Galaxy
To me, one of the most inspiring sights is to view the night sky on a clear moonless night in a rural location far from city lights, to see the stars shining down with wondrous glory. The most exciting feature of this panorama is that pale white pathway across the sky called the Milky Way. I am looking at billions and billions of stars that make up our Milky Way galaxy. If we could step out into space a million light years, our Milky Way would look something like the Whirlpool galaxy shown in the picture. Our galaxy contains 100 billion stars and is so vast that light takes 100 thousand years to travel across it. Within a spiral arm of our galaxy, about half of the distance to the circumference, lies a medium-size star that we call our sun.
With its 100 billion stars, our Milky Way galaxy is so enormous it staggers our imagination. Yet it is only an infinitesimal part of our universe, which contains many tens of billions of galaxies (maybe 100 billion). As astronomers look out into our universe, they see an amazing effect: the universe is expanding. The galaxies of our universe are flying apart from one another, as if they are particles emerging from a gigantic explosion.
Why Does the Universe Expand?
Cosmology scientists inform us that they definitely understand the universe expansion. They have proven from extensive scientific study that our universe was born 13.7 billion years ago in a Big Bang explosion. They can explain in minute detail the many stages of this process that have occurred since that explosion. However, the most astounding part of the Big Bang story is that our universe began as a singularity, which literally means a condition of infinite mass density. Cosmologists insist that our whole universe was microscopic in size at the instant of the Big Bang, and some claim it was smaller than a proton.
We are supposed to believe that the many tens of billions of galaxies of our universe, each containing as many as 100 billion stars, were initially squeezed into a microscopically small body, 13.7 billion years ago. This 13.7 billion-year age of our universe may seem like a long time, but it is only 3 times the age of our earth (4.6 billion years), and stars have been observed in our Milky Way galaxy that are at least 13.4 billion years old. To explain observational data, cosmologists have concluded that our present universe must consist primarily of dark energy and non-physical dark matter, which are unrelated to any energy or matter that we can observe on earth.
What is the basis for these science-fiction claims by cosmologists? Their research is based on computer studies of Einstein’s General theory of Relativity. Obviously, these conclusions must be correct. After all, who can doubt the great wisdom of Albert Einstein?
But Einstein strongly opposed singularity predictions of his theory. The cosmologists reply, “That does not matter. Since Einstein did not have a computer, he could not realize that his equations definitely require singularities. Our computer simulations of General Relativity have proven that the Big Bang must have begun as a singularity, and a massive neutron star must collapse to form a singularity that we call a Black Hole.” (According to Black Hole theory, all of the mass of a Black Hole is concentrated as a singularity at its center.)
Astronomers claim to have proven that Black Holes are physically real, because they are finding many highly compact, dark bodies that are too massive to be neutron stars, and must be Black Holes. Therefore, even though a singularity may seem like science-fiction, these astronomical observations have definitely proven that singularities actually exist in physical reality.
This is the claim made by cosmologists to support the physical reality of singularities. The fallacy of this reasoning is the assumption that the equations of General Relativity are absolutely correct. However, in 1945 Einstein admitted that his theory does not hold exactly under conditions of extreme density of field and matter, and so it cannot be used to predict a physical singularity. (See Article 1,1, page 18 and Reference 7.)
These issues show that to appreciate the true nature of our universe, the reader must understand cosmology, and this requires the knowledge of Einstein’s General theory of Relativity. “But that is impossible”, you say. “Everyone knows that only a few brilliant scientists can comprehend General Relativity!” That common belief is nonsense! In Article 1,1, this website provides a simple yet thorough and scientifically accurate explanation of General Relativity, which can be readily understood by anyone with a high-school knowledge of algebra.
The Einstein theory provides the basis for explaining the universe expansion. Einstein maintained that gravity is not an attractive force, as Newton claimed; gravity is a curvature of space. Within our solar system, the curvature of space produced by gravity is accurately approximated by Newton's theory, which assumes that celestial bodies are pulled together by gravitational forces. However, when we model the universe as a whole, the curvature of space produced by gravity manifests itself as an expansion of the universe.
Why did Einstein not recognize that the curvature of space embodied in General Relativity explains the universe expansion? The answer is simple. Einstein was unable to derive a complete gravitational field equation to specify his General theory of Relativity.
The Einstein Theory of Relativity
Einstein presented his basic (or “Special”) Relativity theory in 1905 to explain a paradox associated with measuring the speed of light. He concluded that the speed of light must be the same for all observers, regardless of their velocities. For this to be true, the instruments for measuring distance and time must appear to be different for observers travelling at different velocities. Yet, these apparent effects are not illusions; they are real. From this concept, Einstein derived some profound conclusions, which include the prediction that energy can be converted into matter, and matter into energy, in accordance with the famous Einstein formula (E = Mc2). That prediction eventually led to the awesome power of the atomic nuclear bomb.
Einstein’s Special Relativity theory was based on the principle that the measured speed of light is exactly constant, regardless of the velocity of the observer. Then Einstein found that this does not hold when the velocity of the observer changes, i.e., when acceleration occurs. He concluded that acceleration and gravity are indistinguishable, and so the speed of light must also vary with gravity. Hence Einstein needed to generalize his Relativity theory to include the effects of gravity and acceleration.
The measurements made by two observers can be regarded as measurements made relative to coordinates at the locations of the observers. Einstein recognized that the essential result achieved by his Special Relativity theory was to translate measurement data in a consistent manner from one set of coordinates to another. To generalize his Relativity theory, Einstein needed to achieve this same result when the two sets of coordinates operate under different accelerations and gravitational fields, as well as under different velocities. Einstein specified this requirement by his Principle of Covariance, which states that the laws of physics should be formulated in such a manner that they are “good” in all coordinate systems.
Einstein discovered that his Covariance principle could be satisfied by a mathematical theory published in 1901 by the Italian mathematician, Gregorio Ricci, with the help of his student, Tullio Levi-Civita. This theory was called “The Absolute Differential Calculus”. It was based on a mathematical principle for specifying curved space that was presented by the German mathematician Bernhard Riemann in 1852. The Riemann-Ricci mathematical theory of curved space provides complicated rules for translating data in a consistent manner from one coordinate system to another.
To incorporate relativity principles into the abstract Riemann-Ricci mathematical theory, Einstein concluded that gravity and acceleration must produce the curvature of space for this mathematical theory. Einstein achieved this by developing his “Gravitational Field Equation”, which specifies the effect of gravity and acceleration on the curvature of space. The elements of this equation are called “tensors”. These tensors must have precise mathematical characteristics, so that they transform into different coordinates according to the rigid rules of the Riemann-Ricci mathematical theory. Tensors that satisfy this requirement are called true tensors.
Einstein was able to derive a true tensor that specifies the effect of matter and energy on the curvature of space. He called this true tensor his “energy-momentum tensor”. He also tried to develop a true tensor to specify the energy of the gravitational field, but he could only achieve a “pseudo-tensor”, which could not be used in his gravitational field equation.
The resultant gravitational field equation developed by Einstein has had remarkable success in predicting the tiny relativistic effects due to gravity that occur within our solar system. However, the Einstein equation cannot yield meaningful predictions of the much larger relativistic effects associated with cosmology, because the Einstein gravitational field equation lacks a true tensor to characterize the gravitational field. The science-fiction concepts derived by cosmologists from Einstein’s General theory of Relativity are the result of using an incomplete gravitational field equation.
The Yilmaz Theory
The Yilmaz Theory
As part of his PhD research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1950’s, Huseyin Yilmaz studied General Relativity theory. He examined an approximate calculation by Einstein of the effect of gravity on the wavelength of light, and discovered that he could solve the problem exactly. This allowed Yilmaz to compute the metric tensor component for time measurement, and from this Yilmaz derived an exact formula for the full metric tensor. The metric tensor is the fundamental tensor of the Riemann-Ricci theory, and from the metric tensor one can directly calculate all of the other properties of the theory. By applying his metric tensor formula to the Riemann-Ricci theory, Yilmaz calculated a rigorous and complete gravitational field equation.
In 1958, the Yilmaz theory was published in the prestigious Physical Review. Unfortunately, Einstein died before he could see this theory. Nearly all of the experts on General Relativity have shunned the Yilmaz theory, because the theory is simple, and would make their complicated General Relativity computer simulations obsolete.
Gravity Makes the Universe Expand
With the Yilmaz gravitational field equation, we have a solid theoretical foundation for exploring the mysteries of cosmology. The physically impossible singularities disappear. Black Holes become neutron stars, and the Big Bang singularity never existed. We can then address the greatest mystery of all: What is causing the universe expansion?
Our answer is remarkably simple. Gravity makes the universe expand! “But how can this be?” you ask. “How can the force of gravity, which always causes masses to attract one another, make the universe expand?” Einstein gave the answer to this question. Einstein explained that there is no such thing as a force of gravity. Gravity is a curvature of space, not a force!
Why does the earth follow a curved path around the sun? According to Newton’s theory of gravity, the sun exerts a gravitational force on the earth, which pulls the earth toward the sun and keeps the earth on a curved orbit about the sun. But Einstein concluded that the gravitational force concept is an artifice. What actually happens is that the gravitational field of the sun curves the space surrounding the sun. The earth follows this curvature of space, which directs the earth into its curved orbit.
With the Einstein General theory of Relativity, the orbits of celestial bodies are determined by solving the Geodesic Equation, which is a fundamental tensor formula of the Riemann-Ricci mathematical theory of curved space. No gravitational force is involved in calculating a celestial orbit with the Geodesic Equation. A celestial body follows a geodesic path, which is the shortest distance between two points in curved space, and so is equivalent to a straight line in the flat space of Newton’s gravitational theory.
General Relativity cannot yield meaningful cosmology predictions with the incomplete Einstein gravitational field equation. However, the rigorous and complete Yilmaz gravitational field equation allows us to implement the principles of General Relativity in the manner that Einstein hoped to achieve. When we apply the Yilmaz refinement of the Einstein theory to our solar system, or even to a galaxy, the curvature of space due to gravity still acts approximately like the attractive gravitational force of Newton’s theory. However, when the Yilmaz refinement of General Relativity is applied to the whole universe, the curvature of space due to gravity acts to make the universe expand.
The Steady-State Universe
Our analysis predicting that gravity makes the universe expand assumes the following physical model: The universe has a constant average density of matter that extends to infinity and does not change with time. If the average mass density of the universe is to remain constant, as the universe expands, there must be a process that creates matter to compensate for the universe expansion. Hence the Yilmaz refinement of General Relativity predicts a universe that it similar to the Steady-State universe theory proposed in 1949 by Fred Hoyle.
But the Hoyle Steady-State theory has a serious problem. If the expanding universe is infinitely old, this theory seems to require an infinite external source of matter to compensate for the infinitely expanding universe.
The Yilmaz refinement of General Relativity solves this problem. The theory shows that the relativistic effect of gravity causes the speed of light to decay to zero at great cosmological distances. Consequently, the actual speed of a galaxy approaches zero at great distances, even though the galaxy is receding at nearly the speed of light. An external source of matter is not needed, because the over-all size of the infinitely expanding Steady-State universe remains constant. We postulate that energy radiated across the universe is converted into matter that compensates for the universe expansion.
By replacing the incomplete Einstein gravitational field equation with the complete and rigorous Yilmaz gravitational field equation, General Relativity yields a radically different concept of our universe. This concept predicts a Steady-State universe that is infinitely old. Our universe has never had a beginning and will never have an end.
Discussion of Website
This website uses "Frames" software in the "Full Site" view, to allow easy access to the various documents of the site. This "Frames" software might not be observable by certain visitors with old browsers. Such visitors must limit themselves to this Home Page.
Except for this Home page, all documents of this website are presented in PDF format, and the visitor must activate Adobe Acrobat Reader to view them. Adobe Acrobat Reader can be readily obtained in a free download from Adobe.
To delineate sections of the website, the comma is used in place of the frequently used period, because a period can confuse Internet software. For example, the designation 1,2 denotes the second article of Part 1 of this website.
Contents of Other Parts of Website
After the Home Page, this website is separated into five parts, which are labeled Parts 1 to 5.
Part 1 gives a series of articles on Relativity theory and its relation to cosmology. Most of this material can be readily understood by anyone with a high-school background in algebra. More complicated Relativity analyses are presented in Part 5, the Scientific Addendum.
Part 2 describes popular books by the author that discuss the mystery of Creation, including the implications of the Yilmaz refinement of the Einstein General Relativity theory on the creation of our universe.
Part 3 is reserved for discussions of Creation, Cosmology, and Relativity issues.
4,0 Lyme Disease
Part 4 discusses Lyme disease. There is a tragic epidemic of Lyme disease in our country, which is being grossly mishandled by the medical profession. This part of the website describes my experience with this misunderstood disease, in order to help readers who may be affected, directly or indirectly, by this scourge. Besides, I am doing my small part in the battle against Lyme disease, which is being led by many dedicated and highly competent people.
5,0 Scientific Addendum
Part 5 contains detailed scientific analyses relating to Relativity theory, including the elaborate analysis by Yilmaz that derived the general time-varying solution of the Yilmaz theory.
The author, Adrian Bjornson, can be reached at the following Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org I promise to reply promptly to your comments. Please give your Email address in the body of your letter. My aol software does not directly copy the heading.
Acknowledgement of Whirlpool
I thank astronomer Dr. William C. Keel of the University of Alabama for his excellent photograph of the M51 Whirlpool Galaxy. This was taken on the 1.1-meter Hall telescope at the Lowell Observatory. This inspiring photograph was graciously supplied several years ago.